Wednesday, 26th February 2020

By R' Boruch Yonah Lipton  

A recent scientific study (June 14, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) describes the formation of a complex structure responsible for the vivid colors of some butterflies from India, Brazil, and North America. The structure is formed when the cell membranes of butterfly scales go through a folding process, each cell deposits chitin (a type of carbohydrate) into a space sculpted by the membranes, and the remainder of each cell dies. Concerning this process, one of the study's authors, Richard Prum, remarked, "What's remarkable is that multiple independent lineages of butterflies have evolutionarily stumbled on this."

Mr. Prum is attributing the similarity of unrelated butterflies to what evolutionists call "convergent evolution." The similarity of pine and oak trees is an example. The former is a member of the gymnosperms; the latter is an angiosperm. Both have wood, specialized tissues and structures for transporting nutrients and water, and are recognizable as trees. But gymnosperms and angiosperms are unrelated. The reason they have similar structures, according to evolutionists, is one of chance. Similar random variations happened in both the gymnosperms and angiosperms to produce lineages that are alike in appearance. That is, the two lines are convergent.

There are numerous instances of "convergent evolution" discussed in evolutionist literature. Tasmanian wolves and placental wolves, koalas and bears, and the eyes of squids (cephalopods) and mammals (vertebrates) are some examples. The unrelated papilionid and lycaenid butterflies of the study mentioned above are just the latest to be discussed. But author Richard Prum nails it on the head when he calls the similarity of butterflies "remarkable." For to the evolutionist, the existence of convergent evolution, rather than supporting evolutionary theory, defies logic and probability.

Evolutionary theory is based on the occurrence of random mutations despite extremely low odds. The chances for the occurrence of similar mutations in two unrelated groups is so small to be considered as bordering the impossible. Rather, the presence of similar structures in unrelated species suggests the independent and special creation of each species. This is what every child who learns chumash knows. Why an evolutionist would cling to his theory despite the staggering odds against it is anybody's guess. Because of the overwhelming odds against evolution, the evolutionist must use curious statements like, "multiple independent lineages of butterflies have evolutionarily stumbled on this." If anyone has stumbled here, it is the evolutionist who has tripped over the stumbling block of his own faulty theory.

Boruch Yonah Lipton is the author of The Song at the Sea According to Rashi and The Sin of the Golden Calf According to Rashi, both available by contacting the author at